Wolf and Wildlife Studies
Tenino - Living With Posttraumatic Stress

In the early 90's, I studied a captive wolf, Tenino, for several years who had come from the Ninemile pack in Montana. Her method of capture, along with her captive conditions, helped to produce and perpetuate her symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results of this research study were published in the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. To learn about PTSD in wolves, please ready the scientific paper or the magazine article that was also written about Tenino which summarizes what happened to her. Both documents can be read online or downloaded as PDFs.

Wolves in captivity

"We need another and wiser and perhaps more mystical concept of animals.  Remote from universal nature, and living by complicated artifice, man in civilization surveys the creature through the glass of his knowledge and sees thereby a feather magnified and the whole image in distortion.  We patronize them for their incompleteness, for their tragic fate of having taken form so far below ourselves.  And therein we err, and greatly err.  For the animals shall not be measured by man.  In a world older and more complete than ours they move finished and complete, gifted with extensions of the senses we have lost or never attained, living by voices we shall never hear.  They are not brethren, they are not underlings; they are other nations, caught with ourselves in the net of life and time, fellow prisoners of the splendour and the travail of the earth."

Henry Beston, naturalist
From, "The Outermost House," 1928


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